Ralph Wood


The Fox Poopah





The Fox Poopah was originated in the early 1990’s by Tim Fox a guide for the Redding Fly Shop. It has become a standard caddis pupa imitation on the Lower Sacramento river and still has a prominent place in the Fly Shop’s yearly catalog. The pattern has become popular across the country.


The two best recommended patterns are tied with either olive or tan(amber) bodies. The olive body imitates the spotted sedge, and the tan represents the brachycentrus. Smaller sizes (16 to 18) in tan tied on Tiemco 3769 do a good job of imitating the turtle caddis (glossosoma) which is a prevalent caddis on the North Yuba.


Fox Poopah

Hook: Tiemco 2302, 2312 #12-#16, smaller sizes Tiemco 3769 #16-#18 Thread: 8/0 to match the body
Underbody: Pearlescent tinsel
Body: Vernille (olive, tan)

Ribbing: Gold wire
Legs: Partridge
Thorax: Ostrich Herl (usually black) Antennae: Wood duck

  1. Start thread behind the eye of the hook and wind back to between the hook point and barb. Catch the gold wire ribbing as you wrap back.

  2. Tie in the pearlescent tinsel and advance the thread to thorax position. Wrap the tinsel forward and tie off.

  3. Cut off a short piece of vernille. Lightly singe the butt end of the vernille to make a rounded end (see fly photo).

  4. Tie in the vernille with the singed butt to the back. The butt should extend just beyond the hook bend. Use the wire rib to lock the rest of the vernille against thehook shank and tie off.

5. Cut the excess vernille using a slanted cut. No square ends here, please. Smooth

out the tie off.

  1. Tie in beard style legs extending to the hook point. At the same spot tie in two

    strands of wood duck flank extending over the back to cover slightly beyond the


  2. Tie in the ostrich herl and form a neat, full thorax. Wrap a small head and whip


I like to fish the fly as a dry dropper in pocket water. If you need to get the fly down further in the water column, tie the pattern using a bead head. Also works well as the top fly pattern in an indicator set-up. I use the top position since the Fox poopah represents an emerging caddis and I prefer that the fly drifts closer to the surface.


This is a very easy pattern to tie using a minimum amount of materials and has been proven very popular in the last couple of years. 

I have presented several leech patterns in this column over the past few years. All leeches are not four to six inches long and tied on 4x-6x long shanked #4 hooks. There are plenty of inch long and smaller leeches. This fly has become a go- to pattern for these smaller denizens of freshwater rivers, tail waters and still water venues. 

I have found small leeches (less than an inch) from sea level to 8391 feet along the continental divide in Yellowstone Park. Alongside the highway in the park at the continental divide is a small pond accessed from a rest area. This small body of water freezes during the long winters of Yellowstone. Makes me think that these small leeches are tough little buggers! 

Mayer’s Mini Leech 

Hook: TMC 2499 SPBL #14-#16 (or comparable hook) Thread: Black 8/0
Body: Holographic tinsel (red, green, and copper)
Wing: Mini-Pine Squirrel strips in brown, black and green Head: Black dyed ostrich herl 

1. Wrap thread from eye to beginning of the bend and attach tinsel. Wrap tinsel forward to one eye length behind the eye. The body will be short and really acts as a hot spot to draw attention. 

2. Cut a one-inch piece of the brown pine squirrel strip. Clear the fur from the front of the strip for a tie in spot. Taper the back of the strip to a point. 

3. Tie in the black ostrich herl in front of the wing and wrap to the eye.

4. Tie off and whip finish.
I fish this fly either with a dead drift and a midge pupa dropper in moving water or with short slow strips with the same dropper. In lakes I use the same slow short strips with a calabaetis soft hackle dropper or another midge pupa. 



I was perusing our front yard dogwood trees the other day and was surprised at the number of buds they already have for the month of March. Although there have been plenty of cold nights, there have been warm days and the flowers, trees and plants are starting to bud. That got me to thinking about fishing our mountain streams.

My tip off to the beginning of the Sierra trout fishing, especially on the North Yuba, has been when the dogwood begins flowering. Now, I am not advocating that the best fishing is at exactly that time of year as you still have to get through the high runoff with its dirtier water. However, there are golden stones hatching in the high water along the banks during this period, so it is not a total loss to toss a Stimulator along the banks in the slack water. Also, some of the smaller waters clear quickly so you can find places to fish.

When I first arrived in Grass Valley, I knew very little about the fly fishing in the area. I joined the fly- fishing club, which at that time, met at the Forest Service building off Highway 49 in Nevada City. I got some hints from the members but a self-published book I found later was also a source of excellent information on fishing the North Yuba River. Fly Fishing California’s North Yuba River published in 1993 by The Salmo Press in North San Juan and written by Ed Klingelhofer is a great little book that gave the reader access spots and fishing information from the headwaters of the North Yuba to Shenanigan Flat below the Highway 49 bridge. The book also included information on Goodyear Creek, Pauley Creek, Lavazzola Creek, Downie River, the Lakes Basin and Haypress Creek along with other smaller waters in the area. Now the book is dated as many of the access points listed in the book don’t exist any longer due to closure by the forest service or the landowner. There also have been many high-water events which have changed the flows in some areas where the fishing is not as good. However, the book does still have relevance and is a fun read from a “good old days perspective”.

One of the flies Ed recommended was the Buzz Hackle (a fore and aft pattern) like the Renegade, which Ed also recommended. However, as you read through the book it becomes obvious the Buzz Hackle   

was the fly of choice for Ed and his cohorts. I tied a few up and they remained in my boxes as I was still enamored with the match the hatch syndrome and stuck with flies, I thought were more representative of actual bugs.

One day things weren’t going well at all. I was guiding a newbie and she couldn’t cast or set the hook when she did get a cast off. The fish were not cooperating very well either. It was getting late in the afternoon and both of us were frustrated. For some reason I decided to switch flies and tied on a Buzz Hackle. The action was almost immediate. She hooked a fish and became very excited, fell backward into the pool we were fishing, laughing like a manic and landed the fish flopping around on top of her stomach. She landed several other fish before dark even though she was soaking wet and a little cold.

I began to fish the Buzz Hackle more frequently and it found a place in my useful patterns for the North Yuba. So here it is. Give it a try I think you may like it as a change of pace.

The Buzz Hackle was designed in the 1920‘s by Myrtle Powell, the wife of E.C. Powell a famous bamboo rod maker out of Marysville, California. The original patterns had the hackles wrapped over a small section of tinsel (grizzly over silver and brown over gold. The grizzly hackle at the back was one size larger than the front brown hackle. Supposedly to handle the weight of the hook bend and level off the fly as it floated.

Buzz Hackle

Hook: Tiemco 100 #14-#18 or similar
Thread: Black 8/0
Tip: flat silver tinsel
Tail: red duck quill slip or stiff red hackle fibers Back Hackle: grizzly cock hackle

Body: peacock hurl
Front Hackle: brown cock hackle

  1. Lay a thread base from the eye to the bend and secure the flat silver tinsel.

  2. Wrap the tinsel four turns down the bend. Then reverse and wind the tinsel

    back to the tie in spot and secure.

  3. Tie in the red duck quill on top of the tinsel tie off spot.

  4. Tie in the grizzly hackle (I like a fairly dark coloration) and wind on four to five

    turns and tie off.

  5. Mount two strands of peacock herl. Twist them together with the tying thread.

    Wrap forward leaving enough room at the eye to wrap the brown hackle.

  6. Tie in and wrap the brown hackle four to five turns (concave side forward).

    Tie off and make a small thread head. Whip finish.

I usually fish this pattern solo on a 7 1/2 to 9 foot 5X leader. If the fly floats, fish it like a standard dry fly. If it sinks on the drift, continue to fish it using small twitches as it begins to swing across the current lanes.


In 1949 the late Fran Betters created the Haystack.  With its combination of splayed deer hair tail, deer hair wing tied back from the eye, shaggy fur dubbing, and hot orange thread head he had created a buoyant dry fly that is still in use today in New England. 

In August of 1970 Joe Brooks wrote a groundbreaking article in Outdoor Life magazine about the “no-hackle” dry fly developed by Swisher and Richards.  Later he wrote the preface for their 1971 book Selective Troutpublished by Crown Publishers.       The big downside to this No-Hackle fly is that the setting of the duck quill wings requires a lot of skill.  Also, the wings are fragile and lose their sharpness after the first fish or two.  The flies were very popular initially, but gradually fell out of favor due to the difficulty in tying the patterns commercially.


In 1975, Al Caucci and Bob Nastasi in their book Hatches, a Complete Guide to Fishing the Hatches of North American Trout Streams introduced a tidy, sparsely dressed version of the Haystack called the Comparadun.  With its semi-circular wing of deer hair and tails of microfibetts it gives the appropriate silhouette as well as stability.  It is also much easier to tie.  A version of this fly replaces the microfibetts tail with a sparkle yarn shuck.  This changes the fly in to a very effective emerger or crippled mayfly.  That pattern is called a Sparkle Dun.  The following pattern is tied with a tan microfibett shuck and a tan body to represent an adult March Brown.  To tie the cripple, substitute amber sparkle yarn or Zelon.  We will soon be seeing this hatch on the Lower Yuba.  

For more on this hatch, go to Flypaper on our website and review the Emerging March Brown article.  This is another excellent pattern for the March Brown emergence.




                        Hook:  Tiemco 100 sizes #10 to #14 with #12 as the most popular.

                        Thread:  Tan 8/0

                        Tail:  Microfibetts in brown, Hackle fibers in brown or Zelon in amber.

                        Body:  Tan hares’ ear or any tan synthetic dubbing.

                        Wing:  Mottled natural brown Comparadun hair (Coastal deer).


1.  Attach the thread 1/16 inches behind the hook eye and wrap to the bend.

2.  Bring the thread back to the two thirds point on the hook shank.  Stack a small amount of coastal deer hair and with the tips pointing forward and the length of the hair body length, tie in the deer hair.  Pinch down tight as you tie down.  Do not let the hair spin!  Use your fingernail to push the wing to a 90-degree angle and wrap the thread tight against the wing to keep it upright. Use your fingers to spread the wing into a semi-circle.  The wing fibers along with the tail will float the fly perfectly. 

3.  Tie in three microfibetts at the bend of the hook.  Work on getting the outside fibers splayed as much as 90 degrees by using thread wraps or by using a small ball of dubbing.  The better you can spread the fibers, the more stable the pattern will be on the water. 

4. Pinch dub the thread with tan hares’ ear, making a small noodle.  Wrap forward up to the hook eye covering the wing butts and making a body tapering toward the front (see fly photo).

5.  Take the fly out of the vise, inspect it, and go make another. The more you practice the better they will look and float. 










Shuttlecocks are simple emerger patterns which are extremely popular in the United Kingdom, Ireland, and Europe. 


The magic of the shuttlecock is the way they float in the water and not on the water as many emerger patterns do. The flotation is from the use of CDC as a wing over the hook eye. The body sits below the water and the wing is above the water. 


This is not a difficult pattern to tie and has been a great pattern for imitating Baetis (Blue-winged Olives) during a hatch. By the way, this is an excellent time to experience the BWO hatch because (It is December 2020 as I write this) it is happening now on the Lower Yuba. The great thing about this hatch is that it is very consistent once it starts. The bugs hatch at nearly the same time every day and the hatch can last for weeks. 


This is also a great fly for you lake fly fishers. Tied with the proper colors, hook sizes and slim bodies, the shuttlecock is an excellent representation of emerging midges. 

The fly has crossed the ocean to become a pattern in many U.S. fly boxes. Like many of the flies we use, the shuttlecock has been modified to suit the fisherman’s needs. Charlie Craven’s Mole fly described in his book CHARLIE’S FLY BOX published by Stackpole Books in 2010 is a good example of a Shuttlecock modification. 

Shuttlecock (Baetis)

Hook: Tiemco 2487 sizes #16 through #22 

Thread: Brown 8/0 or color to match body
Body: Polish Quill (brown, olive), pre-stripped hackle quills (Baetis olive) Turkey quill (Baetis olive) thread or dubbing to match other hatches. 

Wing: Natural dun CDC 


1. Lay a base of thread down from just behind the eye to midway down the bend of the hook. 

2. Tie in your quill there and bring the thread forward to just behind the hook eye. Wind the quill forward and tie down with two wraps. 

I prefer to use a quill or thread body to ensure that the fly abdomen sinks properly. With quill or thread bodies, I use Loon Thin to coat the abdomen and then hit it with the light. This pretty much keeps the fly in the proper position in the surface film. Dubbing will tend to pick up floatant or grease from your fingers and may float the abdomen which defeats the proper positioning of the fly in the film. 

  1. Select your CDC feathers, line up the tips and tie down behind the hook eye with the tips pointing to the right extending over the hook eye. 

  2. Then by pulling the stems, adjust the length of the CDC to the shank length.
    Many of the shuttlecock patterns only use one CDC feather. I prefer to use at least three to make 

sure I have good floatation. 

  1. Whip finish and put a small drop of cement on the head. Be careful and don’t let the cement wick into the wing. 


The shuttlecock is not meant for rough water. Smooth, slick water are its forte. 

The Dark Lord







The Dark Lord is a pattern from the vise of Ron Hart, a long time guide on the Upper Sacramento River. The pattern is a spin off of the Prince Nymph (with a darker tone). It is more imitative of the stone fly nymphs found in the Upper Sacramento. Ron decided to tone down the white biots and the body of peacock herl (using dark brown dubbing) of the original Prince. This has proven to be a winning pattern along the Upper Sacramento River as well as most of the rest of the rivers and creeks in our state. When you can’t buy a hit on a Prince Nymph, give this pattern a try. 


Dark Lord 


Hook: TMC 3761, Mustad 3906B sizes #12-16
Thread: Black 8/0
Body Weight: 5 to 7 wraps of .015 lead wire (optional)
Bead: Gold (if you want additional weight use a gold tungsten bead) Tail: Two brown goose biots
Rib: Gold wire to match hook size
Body: Dark brown or black antron dubbing
Hackle: Hen saddle black or very dark brown
Wings: Two ginger or tan goose biots
Collar: Same as body dubbing 

1. Slide bead on the hook. Start the thread behind the bead and wrap to the bend of the hook. Take two brown goose biots and attach on the sides of the hook shank. Tails should be no longer than 1 1/2 times the gap of the hook. The biots should curve toward the hook. 

2. Tie in your gold wire at the base of the tails. Then pinch dub a smooth body tapered all the way toward the bead. At the largest point the body should be the diameter of the bead. 

Take the ribbing and make 4 to 5 wraps finishing just behind the bead. 

  1. Take the ginger or tan biots and tie in flat on top of the body-the tips should 

extend just beyond the end of the body and curve toward the hook shank. 

  1. Using the hen hackle fibers, tie in a set of legs on each side of the fly extending the 

length of the body. 

  1. Use your dubbing to cover the thread wraps and whip finish right behind the bead. 

I fish this fly on a dead drift in my favorite sizes #12 and #14. I use this pattern under an indicator or as a dropper behind a Stimulator or a larger weighted nymph. 


The Zug Bug













The Zug Bug was originally developed in the 1930’s by Clifford Zug in Pennsylvania and was first used in the Catskill Mountain region. In the 1940’s the patterns popularity had spread to the Western Mountains as far as Yellowstone Park and the Sierra Nevada. 

The use of peacock herl and peacock sword gives the fly an alluring appeal. As has been said many times peacock is a fish catching material. The Zug Bug was designed to imitate either a caddis larva or a cased caddis. Now it is used in both running water and streams and has proven to be very effective as an attractor. In rivers use it as a pattern in a two or three fly rig under an indicator. In lakes I use it as a trailer to a leach or wooly bugger on an 18 to 24-inch length of leader material. Cast, retrieve, dead drift or swing this versatile pattern. Often you will find the Zug Bug listed as one of the top ten nymphs you should have in your boxes. 


Zug Bug 

Hook: Tiemco 5262 sizes #10-#16, or any comparable 2x long 2x heavy hook

Thread: 6/0 to 8/0 black

Tail: Peacock sword (3-5 fibers) 

Rib: Flat silver tinsel

Body: Peacock herl (If you like you can build up the underbody) Hackle: Brown, tied beard style

Wing: Mallard dyed wood-duck extending 1/3 of the body (represents a wing case) 

1. Lay down a thread base from just behind the eye to the bend of the hook. Tie in the peacock sword fibers. 

2. Tie in the flat silver tinsel on the far side of the hook with the silver side facing you. Then tie in three to four thick strands of peacock herl and
wind them to the front of the hook. Clip off the excess. 

3. Wind the ribbing forward and tie off. Clip off the excess. 

4. Strip off a bunch of fibers from the brown hackle and tie in beard style under the hook shank. Clip excess. 

5. Take a small mallard breast feather and strip off the fuzz. Using the tip of the feather make a small triangle and then clip off the tips. Strip off 

the balance of the feather and tie the triangle in covering one third of the body. Clip excess feather. 

6. Build a thread head, whip finish and cement. 


Now go fish! 

The Black Ghost








The Black Ghost is probably the best known of the Rangeley style streamer patterns. (The term Rangeley style refers to the wing being tied on top of the hook shank rather than as veiling along the sides of the fly Carrie Stevens method.) This is the information I was originally given although since then it appears that the terms have become interchangeable. 

The pattern, tied by Herb Welch, was introduced to the public in 1927 at the spring Boston Sportsmen’s Show. It was a baitfish pattern meant for catching brook trout and landlocked salmon along with bass and other species. 

These were the days when sportsmen shows were really sportsmen shows. Maine guides participated in log rolling contests. Penobscot Indians roamed around the exposition floor, and celebrities such as Ted Williams, Jim Thorpe and “Fly Rod” Crosby held court at various venues. There were canoes brought from the lodges along with false fronts representing the lodges and plenty of animal head and fish mounts. One year there was even a black bear cub taking its place alongside numerous fish tanks full of trout, salmon and bass. 

Herb was well known as a fly tyer, taxidermist, artist, caster, and guide. He even taught Ted Williams how to cast a fly rod. There still are some of Herb’s paintings and trophy mounts in existence. David Footer has been responsible for rehabbing several of the older fish mounts.


The Rangeley Sporting Heritage Museum has a good selection of Herb’s oil paintings and fish mounts for people to enjoy. 


Black Ghost 

Rib: Body: Throat: Wing: 

Hook: 5 to 8x long shank, sizes #10 to 1/0 – Tiemco 300, Daiichi 2370. (The sample fly is tied on a Mike Martinek Carrie Stevens Rangeley Streamer hook.) 

Thread: Black 8/0 

Tail: Yellow Schlappen fibers

Rib: Silver tinsel
Body: Black floss
Throat: Yellow Schlappen fibers

Wing: White marabou 

  1. Lay down a thread base from the eye to the bend. Try to keep the base level with no gaps as this will help to keep the floss body smooth. Tie in the tail making sure you leave as small a bump as possible. 

  2. Wind the thread back to behind the hook eye and attach the rib. 

  3. Bind tinsel down to the bend of the hook keeping the body as level as 

possible. Then take the thread to the front of the fly 2 eye lengths behind the 


  1. Tie in the floss. Wind down to the tail and back again. At this point I will 

burnish the body to ensure the body is as level as possible. Wind the ribbing 

and tie in the throat. 

  1. Tie in a marabou plume on top of the fly. This should be fairly thick. Build a 

nice thread head and lacquer at least twice to get a shiny head. Now go fish! 

This pattern is popular all over the world. I have even seen tying instructions from England and Italy. It works very well, in small sizes, in creeks. Use in larger sizes in both lakes and rivers for trout and bass. 




By Ralph Wood



Several years ago Pat and I stopped in at Park’s Fly Shop in Gardiner, Montana, to get a little information on the current fishing in the area. I have found, over time, that you tend to get better information if you approach the counter with something to purchase. I had picked out about a dozen interesting looking patterns from the bins, paid for them, and the clerk offered some information on how to fish a couple of them. I got the current fishing information and we were on our way. 

Gardiner, Montana, is located at the north entrance to Yellowstone Park. Park’s Fly Shop is one of the oldest fly shops, having opened in 1953. They guide on the Yellowstone River, which the town straddles, and various other rivers and streams. None of the patterns they tend to tie and fish have become household names; rather they are variations on older standbys, but they tend to satisfy the palate of Yellowstone trout. 

A couple of soft-hackle patterns I picked up that day have found places in my fly boxes. The Glass-Head PT Soft Hackle is one of them. Not a big variation on current soft-hackle patterns but the colors work well together. Interestingly enough, a couple of years later, I saw both of the soft-hackle patterns that I picked out that day in an article about Park’s Fly Shop in Fly Tyer Magazine. 


Hook: Partridge Spider #12-16 or any comparable soft-hackle hook 

Bead: Amber 11/0 SL glass bead 

Thread: 8/0 dark brown 

Abdomen: Pheasant tail fibers 

Rib: Fine gold wire 

Thorax: Peacock herl 

Hackle: Brown speckled hen hackle 


1. Slip bead on the hook and start your thread directly behind the bead. Wrap thread to the bend of the hook catching in the fine gold rib on the way back to the bend. 


2. Tie in the pheasant tail fibers (don’t use more than four fibers as the abdomen should be thin not bulky.) Wrap forward to approximately • of the shank. Tie off and clip excess fibers. 


3. Tie in peacock herl and wrap forward about 4-5 turns leaving just enough space for the hackle behind the bead. Trim excess. 


4. Size and tie in hackle and make no more than two wraps behind the bead. Trim excess, whip finish and you are done. 


Keep in mind that you need to keep this fly sparse. Keep unnecessary thread wraps to a minimum. 

Fish this pattern on a floating or sinking line on the swing in a two-fly combo or as a dropper off an adult caddis dry. 

Ralph Wood 2020





By Ralph Wood

Red Fox Squirrel Nymph






Like everybody else, I have my favorite nymphs that get used a majority of the time. Along with the Hare’s Ear, PT, Pat’s Rubber Legs and various soft hackles is the Red Fox Squirrel nymph designed by Dave Whitlock. As long as I have those flies in my vest for a day of fishing, I feel confident that I can catch a few trout, bass, carp or panfish. 

Whitlock developed the RFS nymph in the 1960’s as an impressionistic fly. It looks alive, and the dubbing has good movement in the water. You can change the profile and hook to imitate scuds, damselflies, dragon flies, mayflies and caddis. The red fox squirrel fur Whitlock used was a result of his inability to acquire otter, mink, seal and beaver, so he sourced locally either from road kills or by hunting. The soft texture of the squirrel fur holds air bubbles and after the body has been brushed out, the tinseled body provides the fly with muted flash. 


(Basic pattern) 

Hook: Any 2X long shank hook. Sizes 4 to 16 (I prefer Tiemco 5262 or 2313) 

Thread: 8/0 orange 

Weight: Lead wire – diameter of hook wire, 8 to 10 wraps 

Tail: Small tuft of red squirrel back fur 

Rib: Gold oval tinsel 

Abdomen: Belly fur from red fox squirrel mixed 50/50 with Dave Whitlock SLF 

dubbing #1 or a fox tan Antron dubbing 

Thorax: Back fur from red fox squirrel mixed with 50/50 Dave Whitlock SLF 

dubbing #2 or charcoal Antron dubbing 

Legs: On sizes 10 and up, use a partridge hackle – one turn only -- if you wish 

or use rubber legs. 


1. Lay down a thread base from the eye to the bend in the hook shank. 


2. Wrap in 8 to 10 wraps of lead wire in the center of the hook shank. 


3. Coat the wire with cement or Flexament. 


4. Tie in a tuft of red squirrel back fur and then tie in the rib. 


5. Dub the abdomen with the prepared dubbing mixture two thirds of the way up the hook shank. Rib with the gold oval tinsel and tie off in front of the abdomen. 


6. Dub the thorax with the prepared dubbing mixture. The thorax should neatly blend with the abdomen and gradually get larger. The body should resemble a carrot. 


There are several synthetic dubbing blends for this pattern in some of the online fly shops, or I am sure Tom at The Reel Anglers can order it for you. I prefer the Whitlock Blend, but I can’t see any reason why others wouldn’t work. The biggest problem is getting the natural fox squirrel hide or pieces of hide for the mixture. I got two hides several years ago in the Bay Area from a friend who hunted. Try some of the online tying supply shops such as J. Stockard or Feather-Craft, or Google fox squirrel hides. I think that the nymph is more effective with the blend than with the synthetic dubbing alone. 

Ralph Wood   2020



By Ralph Wood

The Mallard Shrimp






I think every West Coast fisherman needs a couple of shrimp patterns in his fly box. For years, when I lived in Marin County, I spent many hours along the shores of Tomales Bay catching flounder, jack smelt, leopard shark, stripers, halibut and the occasional coho. The beaches at Bolinas, Stinson and Dillon were a surf perch heaven with the occasional striper thrown in for good measure. Shrimp patterns caught a lot of fish for me in those days. 

Shrimp patterns were useful along the North Coast steelhead estuaries. I vividly remember one day just below Fernbridge on the Eel River, a Horner shrimp pattern netted two beautiful Jack Salmon and three steelhead in an afternoon’s fishing. We also used shrimp patterns in the Gualala and Russian River tidewaters. 

In those days, the only shrimp patterns we were aware of were the Horner shrimp, General Practitioner, and a pattern Cal Bird tied for his own use. Recently, while rummaging around on the internet, I ran into a pattern called the Mallard Shrimp. It is quick to tie, uses a minimum number of materials and looks terrific. I confess that I haven’t tried the pattern yet, but I am looking for some decent weather and a break in the Covid-19 virus to drive out to the Stinson Beach area, see my son and try my luck. The serf perch should be in now and the run usually lasts until June, and that is also a great time of the year to catch flounder. 

The Mallard Shrimp

Thread: 6/0 Tan 

Hook: Mustad 3908C salt water or any 1X long heavy wire hook 

Flash: One doubled strand of silver or pearlescent Flashabou 

Feelers: Mallard, Gadwall or Pintail flank tip fibers 

Body: You can use the fluff from the flank feathers or a white creamy dubbing 

Eyes: Black mono eyes 

Back: Fibers from a wrapped flank feather pulled back and 

fixed with Loon thin epoxy 


1. Wrap the thread from behind the eye of the hook to the bend and tie in the flash material (one strand doubled). 


2. Tie in the tip of your flank feather. I like to use a fairly long feather and separate out the tip and save the balance to use for the back wrap. 


3. Dub a ball at the point you tied in the feelers. If you use the fibers that you normally discard from the flank feather, use dubbing wax as the stuff is difficult to dub. The dubbing ball supports the eyes in a more upright position. 


4. Tie in the eyes. You can melt the ends of a piece of 40-50 pound mono making a ball on either end. Use as is or dip the balls in black lacquer or paint and let dry. I used Stonfo plastic eyes V Type on the example. 


5. Dub the balance of the body leaving enough room to wrap the flank feather 3 or 4 times. Use the same dubbing as the ball. 


6. Tie the rest of the of the flank feather or new one if you donʼt have enough. Wrap (with the concave side of the feather facing the bend) 3 or 4 times. Whip finish and cut the thread. 


7. Pull the wrapped fibers back to the bend of the hook. Make sure they are surrounding the hook although there should be a few more fibers along the back of the fly. Once you get the fibers the way you want donʼt let go of them. Using Loon UV clear thin finish put a line along the back from the eye of the hook to just behind the eyes of the shrimp. Hit it with the light. Now you can let go. You can put another line of Loon over the first line to get a shiny back. 

Ralph Wood 2020






By Ralph Wood

A Modern Mickey Finn

As the old saying goes, “We are in a fine kettle of fish now!” With social distancing in force, we can’t access most of our lakes because the ramps are shut down, the parking lots are closed, etc. It is likely, as I write this, that fishing may be prohibited entirely as it was in the State of Washington (didn’t happen here as the counties will be allowed to determine what is open). Those of you who have farm ponds on your property are in the best position to fish without a hassle. 

Now is the time for reading about our favorite pastime or tying flies to build up those boxes. Perhaps some of you fly tiers are looking for a challenge or just something different to tie? 

I have been thumbing through Trout Flies for the 21st Century written by the late Dick Talleur and published in 2008 by Lyons Press. His book shows the use of more modern materials to update old flies: synthetic dubbing, foam, flash materials, stick on eyes and many others. None of this was around in the 1950’s as natural and dyed natural materials were all that was available. Often you had to dye your own stuff. Many times that turned out to be a mess! There also was an article on one of the web sites about revamping older streamer patterns with modern materials. I also remembered that there was an old, old article in Fly Fishing the West (no longer published) that used the Mickey Finn as an example for tying multiple different variations of a fly including nymph, dry and streamer patterns. So for fun I decided to go with that pattern. 

I have always liked the Mickey Finn (still carried in some fly shops) and I carry the pattern in both my trout and warm water boxes. Recently it has been one of my go-to patterns for warm water bass and panfish. I decided to tie up a pattern using modifications of the body, wing and tail. I know that this pattern will work because the same color configurations are in this new pattern, but I haven’t given it a dip yet. I decided to tie this pattern in a semi-style of bass flies you will find in Mary Orvis Marbury’s book Favorite Flies -- a great source of old time fly patterns even though there are no tying instructions in the book. You have to figure out what the materials are and how to tie them on the hook. I digress. Sorry! 

A Modern Mickey Finn 

Hook: Gamakatsu B10S #1- #6 or use any bass hook you have 

Thread: 6/0 yellow 

Tail: UV yellow marabou 

Body: Holographic silver ice dub 

Wing: UV yellow marabout or yellow Arctic Fox fur 

Flash: Hedron lateral scale 

Hackle: Red dyed Mallard flank feather or red hen saddle 

Head: Fish-Skull Fish-Mask (sized to hook) 


1. Lay down a thread base from just behind the eye to the point of the barb. 


2. Take the thread to the starting point behind the eye and lash down the marabou to the end of the thread base. Tail extends from 1 to 1 • times the length of the shank. 


3. Dub the holographic ice dub on the thread (I use a dubbing wax on the thread to make the job easier. I prefer a hard wax rather than the sticky stuff.) Wrap the dubbing up the shank to the starting point. This is much easier than trying to use flat tinsel and oval ribbing which can be difficult to get to lay flat and not be lumpy. 


4. Tie in the wing making it long enough to meld with the tips of the tail (I used a marabou wing and added a tail to give more motion to the fly. Arctic Fox will do the same thing.) 


5. Tie in a small bunch of red marabou or Arctic Fox on each side of the wing. Don’t use too much. Cut whatever you intend to use, then only tie in half of what’s left on each side of the wing. Keep the stripe fairly sparse. 


6. Tie in one strand of lateral scale on each side. You can use more but I prefer to keep the flash unobtrusive since the holographic silver body will have a lot of flash. I can always change it later. 


7. Tie in a sized red Mallard flank feather with the concave side to the body. Fold the feather and then wrap it three of four times. Tie off and whip finish. 


8. Using super glue or super glue gel on the thread head; slip the Fish-Mask over the hook eye making sure it sits straight on the hook. Add eyes to the mask with a small drop of super glue. I used a Fish-Mask rather than a thread head to keep the fly closer to the surface. I like seeing the fish swirl on the fly rather than have it out of sight, even though the tug is the drug! 

Ralph Wood 2020





By Ralph Wood

The Headstand







In 1995 Barry Reynolds and John Berryman co-authored Beyond Trout, a Fly Fishing Guide (available on Amazon). The last chapter deals with fly fishing for carp. In it, Reynolds describes his first meeting with a carp, a fly rod and a green Woolly Bugger. 

Two years later in 1997 Barry Reynolds, Brad Befus and John Berryman wrote Carp on the Fly, a Fly Fishing Guide (available on Amazon). The book revealed the entire package on carp: Where they lived, how to find them, what they ate, how to present the fly and the necessary tackle. 

Carp are no longer the great untapped fly fishing resource they were in 1995 and 1997. As a sport fish they have smarts and lots of physical power. Carp have become known as a great fish at which to throw your fly. You can sum up a carp’s living circumstances as follows: They will live almost anywhere; they eat almost anything and, be it hot water in the summer or cold water in the winter, they will be active. Best of all carp can be found in almost all our lakes. 

The fly we are going to discuss is called the Headstand and was developed by Lance Egan. Some of his trout nymphs have become so popular that you might have one of his designs in your fly box. This pattern is meant to be presented to tailing carp or to wary fish that are hunting for food along the bottom. The fly is gently twitched to show movement. 

The Headstand 

Hook: #8 Tiemco 2457 

Thread : Tan 6/0 

Tail: Gold variant rabbit strip fur 

Eyes: Medium silver bead chain 

Hackle: Brown rooster 

Body: Rust Antron dubbing (Sparkle dubbing if you have it) 

Legs: Barred pumpkin/green-orange Sili Legs 

Wing: Peacock sword 

Head: Fluorescent orange Antron Sparkle dubbing. 

1. Secure the hook with the eye pointed down so you can begin your thread wraps at the rear of the shank. This way it is easier to mount the tail.

2. Cut a thick tuft of fur from the rabbit strip and tie on to the rear of the hook shank. Tail should be • inch long. Then trim the butts at a long angle and reposition the hook in the vise. 


3. Build up a smooth thread base to the hook eye. Wrap the thread back from the hook eye and mount the chain bead eyes with figure eight wraps. Add Zap-A-Gap to the tie in point and wrap the thread back to the rear of the thread base typing in a size 12 to 14 brown rooster hackle as you go. Leave enough bare hackle stem for one srap so you won’t have fibers sticking out over the tail. 


4. Form a slim dubbing rope with rust Antron and wrap a short tapered body to behind the eyes fatter at the front end of the body. Palmer the body with five wraps of the hackle. Tie off behind the eyes and trim the excess hackle. 


5. Select a strand of Sili Legs and cut in half and tie on each side of the body. Trim the legs so they extend only slightly past the end of the dubbed body (they should be about • inch long. 


6. Cut off about a dozen Peacock Sword fibers. (Try to keep the tips even and the fibers curved in the same direction). Turn the fly over with the hook point up and tie in the fibers behind the eyes extending as far as the outside bend of the hook. Trim the butts as close as possible and rotate the fly to the traditional position. 


7. Dub the orange sparkle Antron behind, around and in front of the bead chain eyes. Whip finish and go catch a carp. 


These are not easy fish to catch! They have a great sense of smell and can feel small vibrations in the water. They also have excellent audio sensitivity and have a high ranking for game fish IQ. They can hear you coming and will remember your fly and to top it off, they are picky. All in all, they are a worthy opponent. 

Ralph Wood 2020







By Ralph Wood

March Brown






March Browns are the first major sizable mayfly to make an appearance on our local waters. The Lower Yuba has a good hatch and our fish love them. 

The nymphs mature in faster water as they have suction cups on their abdomens that allow them to hold tightly to the bottom rocks. When they are ready to emerge, March Browns migrate to the sides of the river and below riffles in calmer water. The adults emerge under water and while their wings are drying, they will drift some distances making them very attractive to the fish. 

This pattern is based on Pete Hidy’s wingless wet fly, the flymph. It is useful when the duns are flying but the fish aren’t taking adults and you can see boils on the surface. The best way to fish this is to swing the fly on a tight line, quartering downstream through the area of the activity. 

March Brown Flymph 


Hook: Standard nymph #12 to 14 

Thread: Red 6/0-8/0 

Tail: Pheasant tail barbs 

Rib: Fine gold tinsel 

Body: Dark hareʼs ear dubbing 

Hackle: Brown mottled hen 

1. Start the thread behind the hook eye and wrap a base to the start of the bend. Tie in 4 to five pheasant tail fibers one hook gap in length. Then tie in the ribbing material on top of the tail mounting thread wraps. 

2. Dub a rough body forward. Do not make it tight. If the body seems smooth, use a dubbing needle or velcro strip to roughen it up. Wrap the ribbing over the body four to five wraps. 

3. Tie in the hackle with the shiny side facing up. Wrap two turns and tie off. The hackle should be sparse. Use the thread to fold back the hackle and then build a neat thread head. Hidyʼs flymph wraps the hackle over a base of dubbing which is approximately a quarter of the hook shank. Two complete wraps are made toward the eye and tied off. This makes for a more substantial thorax. This pattern is a variation of the original. 

If you are looking for an additional emerger pattern, you might review the April 2019 FLYPAPER (Column is located on the website under FLYPAPER) for an excellent emerger pattern that also has been very successful for the March Brown hatch.


Ralph Wood 2020 

March Brown.jpg


By Ralph Wood

Booby Damselfly Nymph








This pattern is a British import. It is a funny looking fly with many having bright bodies and tails not that the natural colors donʼt work well. However, what really distinguishes the booby fly are large bulbous foam eyes. In 1987 Gordon Fraser, an English fly tyer and angler, wrote a book MASTERINGTHE NYMPH. His primary fishing grounds were Rutland and Eyebrook reservoirs,excellent British stillwater fisheries, and in the book he delineated his lake fishingmethods and flies. The first booby nymph was a small midge larva pattern. The eyes were foam but there was no tail or flashy chenille body. Here was a floating nymph used on the bottom with the help of a fast sinking line.


His was not the first buoyant pattern. In the United States there were floating deer hair bodied dragonfly nymphs and even a couple of damselfly nymphs. These patterns and the methods to fish them never really took hold. In England, however, the booby fly became the rage and eventually the pattern crossed the pond to the Colonies.

The Booby fly is a pattern type not standardized to any set colors or form. For the stillwater fisherman it can be tied as a damselfly nymph, dragonfly nymph, leech, caddis fly pupa, small minnows and even a few dry fly patterns. Different hooks are used for various types of patterns including scud hooks, wet and dry fly hooks, curved nymph hooks and light streamer hooks. 

If this short article has engendered any interest, I would suggest that you pick up a copy of TYING and FISHING the BOOBY FLY by Michael Jensen published in Kindle format only. 

Booby Damselfly Nymph 

Thread: Olive 6/0 or color to match body. 

Hook: Tiemco 200 #10 or Daiichi 1270 #10. 

Eyes: Olive or white Booby eyes. 

Tail: Olive grizzly marabou. 

Rib: Small gold oval tinsel. 

Body: Golden olive hares ear or synthetic. 

Hackle: Dyed olive Hungarian partridge or natural brown Hungarian partridge. 


1. Lay a thread base from the eye to 1/4 inch of the way back toward the hook bend. Then bring the thread to the center of the area.and tie on the eyes. You can use preformed eyes already molded or make your own from 1/4 to 3/8 inch foam cylinders. The molded eyes are very expensive at over a $1.00 a piece. Buy white cylinders, cut to length and color them with markers. Add a couple of drops of cement to hold the eyes in place. Donʼt use instant epoxy as it adds more weight than cement. Remember, you want this fly to hover off the bottom not sink. 

2. Tie in the tail (about half a shank length-see photo). 

3. Tie in the ribbing. 

4. Dub the body, keeping fairly thin, to behind the eyes. Leave a small space to tie in and wrap the hackle. Rib with four or five turns. 

5. Tie in and wrap the hackle. Two or three turns are sufficient. 

6. Move the thread ahead of the eyes and whip finish. Carefully cement the eyes again both top and bottom. Use a black marker to put eye spots on the foam eyes. 

Ralph Wood 2020


By Ralph Wood










The Burlap was originated by Arnold Arana of Dunsmuir, California in 1945. The fly was designed for the Klamath River but over the years gained popularity up and down the north coast. The Burlap, as with many flies of the era, lost followers as steelhead fly patterns began to make the transformation into the flies we know today. 

My fondness for the pattern began in the mid-sixties as I began to learn the section of the Klamath River in the vicinity of Happy Camp. In those days most steelhead flies were tied on the Mustad 7957B, a down eyed hook, in sizes #2-#8. Now most steelhead lies are tied on Atlantic salmon fly hooks. The thread of choice was Belding Corticelli Nymo size A, which is a very stout thread making the heads on these patterns much heavier than they are today. Looking back on the flies I tied in the 1960’s and 1970’s, I am struck as to how bulky and rough they look today. 

The first time I tied on a Burlap, a friend and I were exploring the area above the Happy Camp bridge in early November. I had made a few the night before we left San Francisco and I was anxious to try the pattern. As we drove along the river, I saw a good looking run beside a meadow with a small house, barn and orchard. I pulled in and asked the owner if we could fish the water bordered by his meadow. He allowed that we could, as long as we were fly fishermen and released all the fish we took. He then proceeded to walk us down and show us the most productive sections of the run. Such was my introduction to Lee Bagby and Rancho Rio. 

Those were the days of fiberglass rods and shooting heads. My first cast was atrocious and Lee was kind enough not to burst out into gales of laughter. After a few hints I was able to get off a decent cast and 

almost immediately was into a fish. The fishing lasted all afternoon and at night we camped in the orchard and fished again in the morning. The Burlap never came off my leader. 

For the next several years I frequently fished Rancho Rio and the upstream waters from Cade’s Canyon, Cock Rock and the Allen Ranch (If you are curious about the area I fished, you can check out Steelhead Fly Fishing by Trey Combs published in 1991 by Lyons and Burford Press. There is a picture of Cade’s Canyon on pages 82-83.). As long as the water had two to three feet of visibility, the Burlap was usually my fly of choice. 


Hook: TMC 7999, Gamakatsu T10-6H, 

Mustad 36890 sizes #2-#8 

Thread: Black 6/0 

Weight: Optional (lead wire or non-lead wire) 

Tail: Bucktail (Use brown section from center of the tail). 

Body: Burlap (natural color) 

Hackle: Grizzly 

1. Wrap a thread base to the bend of the hook. 

2. If you are weighting the fly, do it now. Smooth out the lead body with thread. 

3. Tie in the tail. If non weighted, extend the butts to 1 eye length from the eye. 

If weighted, meld the butts into the rear of the lead wire. 

4. Tie in the burlap, wrap forward and trim 1 eye length from the eye. Body 

should be cigar shaped. 

5. Tie in the grizzly hackle. Make four or five wraps, tie off. Build a head and 

whip finish. 

In reality, this is a steelhead soft-hackle and is fished as such.

Long swings across the river and hold on! The tug is the drug! 

Ralph Wood 2019


By Ralph Wood



There is no way to place a value on the difference in performance between good and bad tools. You cannot tie a decent fly if your vice allows the hook to slip, your hackle pliers cause the hackle to break or slip, and the point of your scissors won’t clip an individual hair. By the same token, you cannot tie a proper dry fly without top quality dry fly hackle. Buy half necks to cut costs. Use hen necks or game bird skins for wet flies and nymphs. 




Most tiers tend to use tying thread that is entirely too heavy. A finer thread will make a stronger, neater-looking fly. Size 8/0 is adequate for most dry flies and 6/0 is about right for most streamers. Try Veevus threads that drop down to 14/0 for small flies. Very strong stuff. 




Each style of fly has certain basic proportions that should be maintained relative to the size of the hook. For example, in most dry flies the tail should be the length of the hook shank, the hackle 1 • to 2 times the length of the gap of the hook, and the wings about 1/4 longer than the hackle. Proportions, such as these, should be considered at each step of the tying process. 




A piece of light blue paper beneath your vice will greatly improve the visual contrast and allow for a greater degree of precision in your work. 




Don’t wait until the fly is finished to discover that the tail is too long. If you are critical of each step, errors can be corrected as they develop, and the finished fly will be improved. 




Often the only difference between a good fly and an excellent fly is a little trimming after the fly is out of the vice. This does not mean to trim the wings, tail, or hackle to the proper length, but to look for stray hackle or tail fibers that protrude at odd angles, bits of dubbing that produce a lumpy body, or fibers caught under the thread wrappings of the head. Inspect each finished fly. 




Ask yourself, “What is wrong with this fly?” Compare it with a fly tied by an experienced tier. Ask for criticism. 




Books are helpful, but there is no substitute for watching an experienced tier. (Show time is approaching. Watch the demonstration tiers and take notes.) 




There are many different techniques for achieving the same result. Learn as many new methods as you can and use the ones that work best for you. 




You will usually find that the best fly tiers are not content to do things in the “old way.” They constantly look for new ways to improve their flies, new materials to use, and better imitations for specific insects. (This brings me back to item #3 in this list. Keep in mind that the proportions I speak of may not apply when you examine a natural insect. You may want to change the proportions for that particular imitation.) 


It is better to produce one perfect fly in 30 minutes than a dozen poor flies in the same length of time. Speed will come with time and practice. 




You must constantly try to make each fly better than the previous one. 




Improvement comes only with practice. Tie as often as you can and make an effort to improve your results. I try to tie every day if possible. Get out of your comfort zone and try tying patterns that you feel are tOo difficult or require a technique that you have been avoiding. 

Ralph Wood 2019


By Ralph Wood

October Caddis


Each fall I look forward to the emergence of one of our largest caddis species. The October Caddis (Dicosmoecus) is a juicy feast for the trout as they get ready for winter’s hardships. This is also an excellent pattern for steelhead waters such as the Trinity River. 

Pupas and adults have similar coloration on their abdomens. My basic dubbing mixture is one-half rust brown rabbit, one-quarter burnt orange and one-quarter orange. You can adjust the coloration of the dubbing by adding or subtracting rust-brown rabbit. Hackles I use include natural and dyed hen, dyed Brahma hen and gadwall. 

As the season gets colder, the October Caddis has a more difficult time flying and is more likely to wind up in the water. You can add wings to this pattern to imitate this phase. For sinking imitations, I use dark red squirrel tail fibers since the solid fibers sink well. For floating imitations I use deer hair. 

Tying the October Caddis (Soft Hackle) 

Hook: #6-#8 Mustad 36890, Tiemco 200 (Use shank length to adjust 

body length) 

Thread: 6/0 rusty brown Uni-thread or equivalent 

Rib: small gold oval tinsel 

Body: dubbing mixture 

Hackle: #1 Orange brown hen 

#2 Dark brown grizzly hen 

#3 Gadwall flank (brownish cast) 

Antenna: Fibers from turkey tail or peacock wing quill 

1. Start thread behind the eye of the hook and wrap to a point just ahead of the point of the hook. Catch oval tinsel on the way down. 

2. Dub with your prepared mix forming a cigar shaped body ending about a quarter of an inch behind the eye. 

3. Rib and trim excess. If this is to be a winged pattern, tie in a sparse bunch of hair either deer or squirrel and trim excess. 

4. Tie in and wind hackle-each separately. Use 3 to 4 turns for the hen hackle and 2 turns for the gadwall. 

5. Tie in antenna (should extend beyond the tips of the wound hackle) 

6. Use a small amount of dubbing mixture to cover the head. 

7. Whip finish. 

Fish as you would a normal soft hackle with the sinking patterns. If you are use a floating pattern, dress the deer hair wing with floatant and let it drift on the surface like a dry fly. 

Ralph Wood 2019



By Ralph Wood

Mohair Leeches



Lets talk about leeches.

For those who fish mostly lakes and ponds for bass, carp or trout they are a prime food item. They are also important food items in rivers and creeks. This article is not going to spend time on various wooly bugger patterns but rather a realistic type of pattern. Granted wooly buggers seem to be the go to fly for imitating leeches in both rivers and stillwaters. However, I feel that more imitative patterns yield better results in the long run, even though I do carry a full selection of wooly buggers in my kit just to be on the safe side.

Currently there are patterns that do a fair job of imitating leeches and tend to mimic the motion of leeches as they swim through the water. Many of them, however, in my opinion are too big and too bulky to do a great job. The mohair leeches are one of the patterns that I use consistently. Tied with Canadian mohair and then brushed out, they are slim, which imitates the body of a leech and the undulating swimming motion of leeches, especially if you use a tungsten bead head.

All leeches swim with an undulating motion either from side to side or up and down. As they swim, they elongate their bodies. They have pointed heads and a flattened rear (like a paddle). Most leeches swim near the bottom but there are blind leeches that do swim mid-water. Leeches swim at a speed of one foot every two or three seconds. They do not swim erratically but smoothly and rhythmically. Leeches range in size up to six inches but from stomach autopsies it appears that trout prefer to eat them in the two to three-inch size range. Most patterns are retrieved too rapidly.

Black is the most popular leech color, but very few are pure black. Most naturals are tan, olive, dark grey and brown. You will find stripes and bars of dark brown and olive. Most have spots of orange, gold, red or black. The overall color tends to match the environment; olive for weedy bottoms and olive brown or brindle for muddy bottoms.

If you have never watched a live leech, the next time you camp near a lake break an egg into the water at dark, and in the morning, there should be a couple of leeches saying thank-you for breakfast.

Hook: Tiemco 9395 4x long straight eye, or 3x to 4x hook of your choice.

Thread: 6/0 color to match body or tail

Bead: Small black chain bead, black tungsten to match hook size

Tail: Marabou (usually to match body but I do frequently use a contrasting color).

Body: Canadian mohair in olive, black, rust, etc.

Hackle: Optional-use small hen hackle to match body color. I normally do hackle this fly.

1. Crimp down barb and slip on the tungsten bead or tie in the bead chain.

2. Take thread to bend of the hook and tie in the marabou. If you wish, you can put in a little flash material of your choice. Don’t overdo it!

3. Advance thread to just behind the bead. Tie in the mohair and lash down to the bend. Hold the mohair up and brush to get the fibers to stand out. Wrap forward to the bead, brushing back the fibers with your fingers during each wrap.

4. If you want to have a hackle, leave a small space behind the bead. Tie in the hackle and make two wraps. Tie off, trim the excess hackle and whip finish behind the bead or chain eyes.

Go catch a fish!

Ralph Wood  2019


By Ralph Wood







Back in the nineteen-fifties wet flies were king. Very few semi-realistic or realistic nymph flies existed. Ray Bergman had presented a few in his magnum opus TROUT second edition published in 1952. William Blades in FISHING FLIES AND FLY TYING published in 1951 spent a chapter on nymphs and devised a way to use Ducco cement to make extremely realistic nymph patterns. Preston Jennings, John Atherton, Edward Hewitt, Charles Wetzel, Art Flick and others all contributed to the branch of fly fishing we call nymphing. But the patterns, although effective, failed to really inspire fishermen to try and fish these imitations.


The revolution that triggered the swift demise of the wet fly, I feel, was the 1955 publication of MATCHING THE HATCH by Ernest Schwiebert, Jr., at the time a college student at Yale. The public rapidly absorbed the book and the message within. The book has sold millions of copies over the last fifty years and became a seminal work on hatches both East and West at the time. Natural imitation became the watch word and wet flies began to disappear from fly bins across the nation.


I have not found in my research an exact time when the wet fly revival began anew. However, I began to see a few articles on wet flies in the fly fishing publications but most dealt with the beauty of the wet fly and the fun in tying these old patterns. So about fifteen years ago, I began to tie a few of these old-time flies just for the pleasure of it. That led to fishing some of these patterns in brook trout streams here in California and in the North Yuba for rainbows. They worked and worked well.


Then the books began to appear. Sylvester Nemes began his series of books with THE SOFT HACKLE FLY in 1975, Helen Shaw with FLIES for FISH & FISHERMEN in 1989, Dave Hughes wrote WET FLIES IN 1995 and Mike Valla published THE CLASSIC WET FLY BOX in 2012. During the same period, magazines like FLY TYER published articles by such tyers as Don Bastian showing how to tie these flies.


Why are wet flies returning after a hiatus of more than 60 years? Well, first they still work. They can imitate drowned insects, egg-laying adult caddis and, as I wrote in the April 2019 newsletter, as mayfly nymphs that emerge under the surface such as the Western March Brown.


I think that it is important to remember our roots. and the flies that have caught fish year after year.

Thread: 8/0 black

Hook: Mustad 3906B or any other 1x long shank wet fly hook. #10-16

Tag: Flat gold tinsel

Body: Peacock herl

Hackle: Dark brown hen

Wing: White duck or goose quill sections

1. Attach the thread one hook eye length from the eye and wrap to the beginning of the hook bend.

2. Tie in the flat gold tinsel (sized to hook) at the bend. Wrap down the bend approximately one quarter inch and back to      the hanging thread. Tie off and clip the excess.

3. Tie in two to three peacock herls (depending on size of the hook). Wrap the herl counterclockwise around the thread to strengthen the body and wrap forward to the beginning of the thread base. Tie off the excess peacock herl and trim excess.

4. Tie in the sized brown hackle, fold and wrap two to three times, tie of and cut excess.

5. Cut a section from a right and left duck or goose quill. Match with the concave sides

together. Place the two sections together over the hook shank. You can tie these in

with the tips pointed down or up. I prefer the tips up. Now the tricky part. Pinch the

feather slips and the hook shank between the thumb and index finger of the left

hand. bring the thread up between the thumb and the shank and down the other

side. Make sure that the thread is in the proper position, pinch hard and pull the

thread down. Again, make sure that everything is to your liking then wrap the thread

forward and make a nice head. Do not let any wraps go behind the first wing set

thread wrap or you will ruin the set of the wings. Whip finish, clip the thread and the

fly is done.

In the COMPLETE BOOK OF FLY FISHING Joe Brooks stated “My favorite wet fly is the Coachman #12. I can readily believe that a trout will see that white wing sooner than any other color....I am sure that when I retrieve that fly in short jerks, it looks exactly like the small minnows so often found in trout waters.”

Ralph Wood  2019



By Ralph Wood

Twitch-Pause Nymph









Fall River is the largest spring creek in California and is a fabulous fishery. I always look forward to matching wits with its educated trout. The small flies and light leaders that are normally used put the trout in a very advantageous position. I do realize that you can dredge the corner bends with big, ugly leech patterns and, in the evening, you

can throw mice imitations up against the reeds (there are a plethora of mice in the fields) and hook into some very large trout. However, my personal preference is for small flies and light leaders.


My love affair with Fall River began many years ago when Hat Creek was just being rehabbed into a blue-ribbon fishery. I went into a small fly shop in Burney and met the proprietor, Chuck Stranahan, who, at the time, was hunched over his vise. I was immediately struck by Chuck’s flies. They were well tied and each one out of the vise looked like the one before it. I later came to find out that both Chuck and I had the privilege of being instructed by Cal Bird. Many of Chuck’s patterns have been carried by Umpqua Feather Merchants over the years.

We fished together on both Hat Creek and Fall River and other streams in the area for several years until Chuck moved to Montana and opened Riverbend Fly fishing in Hamilton, on the Bitterroot River.


The story of the Twitch-Pause Nymph is outlined in Jack Dennis’s Tying Flies with Jack Dennis and Friends published in 1993 by Snake River Books and is available on Amazon as a used book. This is a guide’s fly. It is quick and easy to tie with a dozen

an hour easily in reach. I have never seen this fly for sale in any of the fly shops.


The Twitch-Pause Nymph has been one of my go to flies on Fall River for many years. When the micro-caddis flies are hatching, this pattern usually ends up on the end of my leader.

• Hook: Tiemco 3769 or similar in sizes 12-20

• Thread: 8/0 black or dark olive

• Body: Wool either Crewel embroidery yarn or any wool you have available in light tan, dark olive, lime green or cinnamon                  brown.

• If necessary, untwist the yarn into smaller strands to make a thinner body.

• Throat: Mottled hen back fibers, lighter shades with lighter body and dark shades with darker bodies.

• Head: Peacock herl

1. Wrap the thread from the eye of the hook to the bend. Return to eye.

2. Tie the wool on at the full length of the abdomen to the bend. This will ensure that the body will remain uniform.

3. Twist the yarn into a rope and wrap a segmented body to one eye length behind the hook eye.

4. Select 6-8 fibers from a hen back and tie in on the bottom of the hook. The length

should be slightly past the end of the hook.

5. Tie in two strands of peacock herl by the butts. Wrap the herl around the thread and make 2 to 3 wraps to form the head. Whip finish.

This is a very simple tie but a very effective caddis pupa imitation or micro-caddis pupa pattern depending on the hook size. The name of the nymph tells you how to fish it! Not only have I found this pattern successful on spring creeks but also on long deep pools in freestone streams, such as the dredger pools on the North Yuba. Use a long leader and cast gently.

Ralph Wood 2019


By Ralph Wood

Tup's Indispensable







When the weather is bad during the winter, I (when not tying flies) like to read and research the history of fly tying and fly fishing especially, when the subject leads to patterns that have survived over long periods of time and that can still be found in anglers fly boxes today.

Recently I was leafing through THE HISTORY OF FLY-FISHING IN FIFTY FLIES, (published in 2015 by Abrams Books in New York, NY and available on Amazon), when I came across the Tup’s Indispensable as one of the listed flies. I recognized the name from reading books by Skues, Leisenring and Sylvester Nemes but I had never tied the pattern.

This pattern was originally created in the early 1890‘s by R.S.Austin in Devon, England as a wingless dry fly to imitate the spinner of the British olive dun. Austin was a tobacconist who ran a sideline in fly tying. In 1900 he sent Skues an example along with tying instructions and some special dubbing material. Skues was very impressed with the results he obtained and published his findings in the English sporting press. The fly became so popular that Austin became sick of tying it. During this period of time, Skues found out that it worked as well as a wet fly (nymph) as it did dry. This was the beginning of the soft hackle Tup’s as portrayed in Leisenring’s THE ART of TYING THE WET FLY and Nemes THE SOFT HACKLE FLY.

Austin insisted on keeping his special dubbing secret. He did swear Skues to silence and requested that the formula not be given out until his death. Skues kept his secret and even kept it longer since Austin’s daughter, Agnes, tied the fly until she retired in 1934 and released Skues from his vow.

What was this mystery ingredient in the dubbing? The hair from a ram’s scrotum! The combination of orange dye used to check for breeding plus the urine, after being thoroughly washed, gave the dubbing that little something special. There are a great many dubbing mixes now available for the Tup’s but there appears to be little consistency in the color. The original was a mixture of cream and red seal, combings from a lemon-yellow spaniel and the ram’s fur. Dyed rabbit fur, sometimes with a little sparkle mixed in, seems to be popular today. Leisenring’s dubbing was yellow and

claret seals fur mixed dubbing spun on primrose yellow thread. Sylvester Nemes went from a light pink and orange fur mix in his 1981 book to a straight light pink in his 2006 second edition. I favor the first Nemes dubbing, but it is pretty much take your choice I guess.

Tup’s Indispensable

• Thread: Pearsall’s Primrose yellow or Danville yellow 8/0

• Hook: Mustad 3906 #12-16, Partridge Spider #12-14 or Alex Jackson’s Soft Hackle Trout Fly #11-13 (illustrated fly is tied                         on a Partridge Spider #12)

• Tail: Short blue dun hen hackle fibers

• Abdomen: Yellow thread

• Thorax: Dubbing mixture (medium-pink, orange and red. The orange and red are for high-lights. Pink is the base color.)

• Hackle: Blue dun hen

1. Start thread behind the eye of the fly and extend to one third of the way to the bend.

Tie in the tail material so that the tips extend out from the bend about one-half the

hook length. Then holding the tail up and centered on top of the hook, wrap the

thread down to a point between the hook point and the barb.

2. Wrap the thread back to one-half the shank length with close touching wraps.

3. Twist the dubbing on the thread. You probably will need wax. Try not to get too

much on the thread. Dub the thread sparsely! You can build the thorax up by

adding more wraps.

4. Tie in the hackle by the tip. Fold the fibers and wrap 1-3 times depending how

sparse or heavy dressed you wish the fly to be. I suggest two turns are sufficient.

Whip finish and add a drop of head cement.

Make sure when you are mixing the dubbing that pink is the predominate color. Since I am not making a lot of flies, I use the finger mix technique to blend the dubbing rather than dragging out the coffee grinder.

Other hackles can be used including a mottled grey Brahma hen, dyed dark grey partridge or, if you can find it, some dressings call for a honey dun hen hackle.

This fly has been in fly fishers’ boxes for many years. Longevity gives the Tup’s Indispensable credibility, and with Leisenring, Theodore Gordon and Sylvester Nemes fishing this fly, it definitely has merit!

Ralph Wood 2019


By Ralph Wood

Casual Dress


E. H. Rosborough devised the Casual Dress in 1960 as something new to try out on one of his fishing expeditions to the Upper Deschutes. After that successful trip, the Casual Dress became one of his staple flies. 


Rosborough lived most of his life near the Oregon streams where he devised a series of nymphs and dry flies.  His first published book (Tying and Fishing the Fuzzy Nymph published in 1965) was a paperback consisting of 85 pages and 15 patterns. His fourth and last revision was published in 1988 and contained 25 patterns. Polly’s conviction was that a broken outline was critical to fish perception and thus to the acceptance of a fly. This became a major theory of imitation and led to a new way of looking at fly tying. The only edition of the book available on Amazon, at the time I checked, appears to be

the 1978 revision.

Hook:    #2-12 2X to 3X long heavy hook

Thread: Black 6/0

Tail:       Muskrat fur with guard hairs (taken from the darkest piece of hide you have.)

Body:    A generous amount of muskrat fur with guard hairs mixed well.

Collar:  Muskrat fur with guard hairs as dark as possible.

Head:   3-4 strands of black ostrich herl, lightly twisted.

1. Start the thread behind the eye and wrap smoothly to the bend of the hook.

2. Tie in the muskrat fur tail extending about one body length. I prefer that the guard

hairs be a little longer. (Follow the directions in step #4 to cut the fur from the hide.)

3. Use dubbing wax on the thread and twist-dub a thick body. When you are finished,

use a brush to rough the body up (old tooth brush works great). Leave enough room

for collar and head (1/4 of shank).

4. Cut a hunk of muskrat as dark as you can find on the hide, keeping the fur and tips

all facing the bend in the hook. Holding the guard hairs and tips of the hair tightly,

remove most of the underfur. Holding the fur so that the guard hairs extend to the

bend of the hook or slightly past make a couple of loose wraps. Using your thumb

and forefinger ease the clump of fur around the hook. Once you are satisfied that it

is fairly evenly distributed around the hook, tighten the thread and cut off the waste


5. Tie in the ostrich herl, and twist lightly. Wrap the head and whip finish.


The larger sizes produce well for bass and the smaller sizes appeal to panfish. Any

size will work in streams.

The Casual Dress is not representative of any species of aquatic life. It is more of a general food source although I suppose you could argue that it represents a dragon fly nymph. The way the fly is tied, with all the guard hairs in the dubbing, allows the body to pick up air bubbles giving it a silvery football shape as it drifts along in the current or is hand twisted in a lake.


Polly had some unique ways of tying. You will note, if you read the book, I have diverted from some of his dubbing techniques because they are more suited to commercial tying where you need to prepare more dubbing than you do tying just for yourself. However, if you can get one of his books, you will find a wealth of other material in it. Tying and Fishing the Fuzzy Nymph belongs in every fly tier’s library.

Ralph Wood 2019


By Ralph Wood


March Brown Wet Emerger







March Browns are the first of the larger mayflies to emerge after a long winter.  They may appear as early as February in the valley rivers and as late as May at higher elevations.  The Lower Yuba, Feather and the lower Sacramento river all have good hatches.  

March Browns are in the family Heptageniidae.  These mayflies are well represented with seven species from New Mexico to Alberta and all along the Pacific Coast.  Rhithrogena Morrisoni are the prevalent species here in California.  You can identify these bugs quickly by the beautiful brown mottling on the adults’ wings. The body of the dun varies between a chocolate brown and dark-olive brown on the back and a pale yellow or buff color on the underside.  

March Brown nymphs are clingers.  You will see what that means when you endeavor to remove one of the nymphs from a rock.  The way the gills overlap creates a suction like abdomen that allows them to live in fast water.  The nymphs are between a quarter of an inch to half an inch long.  Due to their ability to hold to the rocks means that there are not a lot of dislodged, free drifting nymphs in the water column.  When they are ready to hatch, the nymphs will migrate to shallower, calmer water.

March Browns begin their emergence beneath the surface.  If you are lucky enough to have a good angle with the sun you can see them rising up with the wings waving in the current.  This is the stage that seems to appeal to the fish the most.

 This pattern was devised by Andy Burke and has been extremely successful.  I first ran into it in 1999 and use it during the March Brown hatches in our valley rivers. It has become one of my staple patterns. 

       Hook:       TMC 3761 or Mustad 3906B #10 to #14.

        Thread:    Tan 8/0.

        Weight:    Four to five wraps of .015 lead wire or lead substitute.

        Tail:          Ginger Z-Lon topped with three or four pheasant tail fibers.

        Body:       Light-colored hare’s ear dubbing.

        Ribbing:   Pearl or root beer Krystal Flash.

        Hackle:    Mottled brown partridge or hen hackle.

        Wing:       Ginger Z-Lon, topped with brown marabou. 


1. Wind four to five wraps of the lead wire in the thorax area.  Bind down the wire and apply a coat of cement.

2. Use one-third of a strand of Z-Lon and tie in as normal at the bend of the hook.  Trim it to one-half the shank length and then tie in three to four pheasant tail fibers on top.  The fibers should be equal to or slightly longer than the shank.

3. Tie in the Krystal Flash then dub a shaggy tapered body with light hare’s ear. Body should be slightly chunky.  Rib the body with evenly spaced turns of Krystal Flash.

4. Prepare the hackle feather, tie in and wrap no more than three wraps or the fly won’t sink as well.

5. Tie in an underwing of ginger Z-Lon approximately one-half strand and trim it to body length.  Then add a sparse overwing of brown marabou the same length as the underwing.  Wrap a neat head and whip finish.


The tactics in fishing this fly are pretty straight-forward.  Cast across stream, throw in a big mend upstream to give the fly a little depth and lead the swinging fly with your rod tip.  You should taper your leader to 4x to minimize break offs.

Ralph Wood


March Brown emerger.jpg


By Ralph Wood

X - Caddis







This is at least a twenty-year-old pattern that I have been using for almost that long. It was devised by Jackie Mathews, spouse of Craig Mathews of Blue Ribbon Flies fame. Her premise was that if trout would take sparkle duns with their trailing shucks for emerging and crippled mayflies why wouldn’t they do the same for emerging and crippled caddis flies? All types of aquatic insects can experience problems during emergence for many different reasons. They may become trapped in their shucks or their shuck can still be attached and trailing off the body. Trout find these cripples easy

prey. They may not lock onto these cripples to the exclusion of regularly emerging caddis, but they won’t pass them up either. I find the X-Caddis a good searching pattern when there is no hatch activity and an excellent pattern to use during an emergence. The pattern works well when there is no hatch activity because cripples get caught up in the currents, drown and will drift along in the slack water for hours after an emergence becoming an opportunistic snack for a

trout, especially in eddies and side currents. I use this pattern more often than I use an Elk Hair Caddis because, without the body hackle, the pattern lies flat in the surface film and presents a better silhouette than a higher riding imitation. I save the Elk Hair Caddis for situations where the water is faster and heavier and I need a pattern that will float higher.


Hook: Tiemco 100 or equivalent, sizes #12 to #20

Thread: 8/0 to match the body color

Shuck: Amber Zelon or substitute (Keep this very, very sparse)

Body: Olive, tan, black or amber fine dubbing

Wing: Deer hair or bleached elk

1. Tie in Zelon shuck (should extend the length of the hook shank)

2. Dub body to just short of the hook eye. NOTE: almost all the dry caddis

patterns I see have bodies that are much too long. Take a look at a live insect

and you will see that the bodies are shorter than the wings.

3. Tie in deer hair or bleached elk wing extending to the hook bend. Make sure

that the wing cups the body extending down over the sides of the fly and

extends to the hook bend.

4. Whip finish and trim the butts Elk Hair Caddis style.


NOTE: Do not make the shuck too thick. It needs to be sparse, so it is translucent like

the natural shuck.


This fly is fished upstream dead drift, well dressed with floatant. Cast to rising fish or to selected spots where you might expect to find a receptive fish. I have found that a size #6 light wire hook with a dirty orange body has worked well for the October Caddis hatch on the North Yuba and Trinity rivers (pattern was published in the September 2015 newsletter).

Ralph Wood



By Ralph Wood

Pat’s Rubber Legs

Pat’s Rubber Legs is attributed to Pat Bennett, a guide out of Island Park, Idaho. It was tied as a searching pattern to represent a stone fly nymph.


I surmise that the pattern was an offshoot of the Girdlebug (an old time Montana pattern). Originally the pattern came from Dillon, Montana, but who first tied the Girdlebug is obscured in the mists of time. There is another rumor around that the fly was originated on the East Coast in the Appalachians.


The Girdlebug is not the most attractive fly: stubby black chenille body with white rubber antenna, legs and tail. Sometimes it is all about the white legs? Ernie Schwiebert in A River for Christmas and other stories published in 1988 has a short story called the River of the Girdlebugs that has a humorous tale of how the girdlebug got its name. Supposedly, the white feelers, legs and tail were pulled from a dance hall girl’s girdle.


Be that as it may, Pat’s Rubber Legs, tied with brown chenille, has been a standby fly in our area. It represents a Skwala nymph on the Lower Yuba and tied in other colors a generic stonefly nymph in other rivers. With the action of the rubber legs the fly has good mobility to attract fish.


As I have found out, this pattern also works in lakes. I was an unbeliever until recently, when in one of the pay-for-play lakes, the only thing that worked consistently was a Pat’s Rubber Legs in brown with a Flash Back Pheasant Tail as a dropper. My only guess about the reason it worked so well is that it might have resembled a dragon fly nymph to the trout.

Hook: Streamer 5 long and 2x heavy Mustad R75-79580 or comparable

hook, size #2--#10

Thread: Color to match body

Weight: 0.20-0.25 lead wire or lead substitute

Tail: Super floss or spandex-color to match body

Body: Small chenille in brown, black, green or variegated

Legs: Super floss or spandex

Antenna: Super floss or spandex

1. Cover hook shank with tying thread to get a good base. End thread at the bend of the hook.

2. Tie in two pieces of super floss at the bend and clip to hook gap length.

3. Wrap in 10 to 20 turns of lead wire at the abdomen and cover well with thread. Build up a ramp at both ends and leave the thread at the tail tie in point.

4. Tie in the small chenille and wrap thread to the rear of the abdomen.

5. Tie in the three legs starting at he end of the abdomen-leaving a space the width of the chenille between each leg. Note the legs in the photo.

6. Wrap the chenille forward and between the legs making the crossing between each leg below the hook shank. Leave enough space for the antenna and head.

7. Tie in two pieces of super floss for the antenna, build a thread head behind the tie

in point.

8. Whip finish. Cut the legs and antenna to desired length and you are done.


This fly has always been a must have pattern in my fly box. As mentioned, I am still

finding new uses for it.

Ralph Wood


Pats Rubber Legs.jpg


By Ralph Wood 

Gartside Soft Hackle Streamer

I am sure almost all of you have heard the name Jack Gartside. He is the creative fly tier responsible for patterns such as the Gurgler, Sparrow and Pheasant hopper among many others. One of my favorite Gartside flies is the Soft Hackle Streamer and is the subject of this column.


Jack was originally a teacher in Boston. He decided to leave teaching because, as he saw it, he was safer driving a cab than teaching in the Boston public school system. Jack invented some of his most innovative flies on a vice clamped to the steering wheel of a taxi cab while he awaited a fare at Logan Airport in Boston.


He believed in easy to get materials that could be made into a fly quickly. He was extremely innovative and the fact that several of his patterns have stood the test of time proves it.

This is a very alive streamer in which he combined marabou, flashabou and mallard flank in an unusual way for the times (somewhere in the 1970’s). The inner placement of flashabou gives the fly an internal light which has been very successful.

Soft Hackle Streamer

- Hook: Any regular wet fly hook in sizes #6-#2 (experiment). The example is tied on a Gamakatsu B10s #2 for bass.

- Thread: 8/0 your choice (usually to match the marabou).

- Body: None

- Tinsel: Gold or Silver flashabou

- Hackle: Marabou blood plume (Pick your color)

- Facing Hackle: Guinea, Mallard Flank, pheasant rump or any other long, soft hackle feather. The example is tied with a dyed blue guinea hackle.

1. Wrap the thread down from the eye to about the 2/3 to 1/2 mark on the shank.

2. Tie in a doubled-over strand of flashabou where the thread wraps end.

3. Take a marabou blood plume of your chosen color and strip the feather back from the butt up to the point that the stem is thinner. Tie in by the tip and wind forward to about one-quarter shank length from the eye to where you have advanced the thread. As you are winding constantly smooth the marabou fibers to the rear. Use a tooth pick to release the fibers that get wound under. Tie off the marabou, leaving room for the facing hackle.

4. Select a mallard flank feather, strip the fuzz off and strip up to the point that the stem begins to thin. Tie in by the tip with the shiny side facing forward and wrap one to two turns. Tie off the flank feather and build your thread head. Trim the flashabou a little longer than the marabou. Whip finish and you are done. I do like to take a comb to the fly to smooth all the fibers and any tangles.

As you have probably gathered by now, this more of design rather than a rigid pattern. You can mix the colors by tying in two marabou plumes at the same time (the example uses white marabou faced by blue marabou). Mallard flank can be dyed various colors as can guinea hen and these are available in fly shops such as the Reel Angler. You can also use webby saddle hackle as a facing hackle. Experiment and have fun!

Ralph Wood 2018


By Ralph Wood 

Bluegill Imitation 

There was a shout from across the pond “He’s huge and he’s got my bluegill in his mouth”. Then there was silence, a splash, and “He dropped it!”. “He was a huge bass!” Thus began my quest for a imitation bluegill pattern that didn’t take an hour to tie! 

There are lots of imitation bluegill streamers around but, unfortunately, most of the good ones take some time to tie. I wanted a pattern that could be less of a problem in the vise but that worked either as well, or hopefully better, and could be tied with synthetic materials that would resist water logging. 

Eventually I ran across Summer Bugs, a Warmwater Fly Box by Ralph E. Long. The book was self published in 2017 and can be found on Amazon. I can’t say that the book is a revelation or that the material is very new, but inside I found the foundation for the bluegill pattern that I wanted. 

Little Gill Streamer 

Hook: ##6 Tiemco 8099 or #4 Gamakatsu B10S Stinger 

Thread: Black 6/0 

Body: Pearlescent braid 

Throat: Blue super hair, under small bunch of yellow calf tail half the length of the blue, under a small bunch of orange calf less than 1/2 of the yellow. 

Wing: Olive super hair 

Eyes: Pearl and black (not called for in the original pattern, but I like their look.). Coat head with Loon clear thick. 

Stripe the wing with black marking pen. 

1. Attach thread and tie in the braid at the bend and wrap forward to the eye. 

2. Secure the blue super hair to the hook using firm pressure. (You might add a drop of Krazy glue to the wraps). 

3. Tie in the yellow calf tail then add the orange calf adding a drop of Krazy glue, if you wish. 

4. Tie in the wing, again you can use Krazy glue to the wraps. 

5. Build a larger than normal thread head attach eyes and coat the head with the Loon thick and hit it with the light. 

6. Stripe the wing with the black marker. (See photo) 

The fly is fished on a floating line and standard leader of 10 or 15 pound test. As Ken Hanley says, “puppeteer” the fly to act like a wounded blue gill. I fish the fly near cover such as weeds, reeds and along sunken trees. I use a 9 foot leader to give the fly a little depth. The pattern, being made of super hair, has enough motion to give it life but still keep its flat shape intact. 

For those of you who like to fish the Delta, stripers eat bluegills! There are discussions of forage items and even a sunfish pattern in FLY FISHING THE CALIFORNIA DELTA by Mike Costello (Available on Amazon). I have not tried this pattern there, but if I was to, I would kick the size up to 1/0 to 3/0 on a salt water hook. 

Ralph Wood 2018



By Ralph Wood 



Biot Nymph 






In May of 2015 I wrote a piece on the Turkey Bead Head nymph and where the pattern came from for the newsletter.. At the time, I was working on several other different guide patterns that were quick and didn’t take a lot of expensive materials. The one I finally settled on was what I called the biot nymph. This pattern has shown its usefulness for several years now and has become one of my staples on the North Yuba, Truckee and Little Truckee during the fall months. 

I have always been a believer that nymphs and wet flies should be tied with soft materials that have a lot of motion and absorb water to imitate a juicy item of food. This fly has none of these characteristics, other than some motion from the picked out black UV Ice dubbing, yet still is extremely effective. It is not a fly that holds up well for a long period of fishing but I think the results are worth it and it certainly is not difficult to tie. 

I have no idea what bug this pattern represents to a fish. It could be a cased caddis, midge pattern or a mayfly nymph. All I know is it came out of the vise and it works! 

Biot Nymph 

Hook: Tiemco 2457 #12 to #16 or any heavy wire scud hook 

Bead: Copper (sized to hook) 

Thread: 8/0 black 

Body: Rusty brown goose or turkey biot 

Thorax: Black UV Ice dub 

1. Slip copper bead over the point to the eye of the hook. 

2. Tear a goose biot from its stem. If you hold the goose biot up you will see a notch. When you tie in the biot by the tip and wind it; make sure the notch faces the rear. When you do this you will see a rib of fringe appear and that is how I like the fly. Reverse the direction of the notch and you will get a flat body with no ridge. 

3. Dub the thorax behind the bead, whip finish behind the bead. Roughen up the dubbing with a brush and you are finished. 

This fly is easily destroyed but with a wire rib it does not seem to fish as well. I use a coat of super glue on the thread base just before I wrap the biot. That helps enhance the hardiness of the fly. 

I usually fish this pattern as part of a dry and dropper combination. You can also fish it as part of an indicator nymph rig. I hope this pattern is as successful for you as it has been for me! 

Ralph Wood 2018





By Ralph Wood







“If I were to make a selection of the most productive and consistent trout-taking patterns of terrestrials, I suppose it would have to be the ants. All round, I don’t think they can be beat” 

Ed Koch, Terrestrial Fishing, 1990 

Well, I’m not totally convinced that an ant pattern is the best terrestrial imitation. I would have to give the beetle imitation some credence. Overall, however, there appear to be more different patterns for ants than any other terrestrial. In fact, in 1963 Ernie Schwiebert published an article in Outdoor Life listing more than 30 patterns for various ants based mostly on color. In later years Ernie admitted he might have gone overboard a little. 

You could trace the first terrestrial pattern back to writings by Claudius Aelian in about 200 BC and the first, to my knowledge, fishing fly; the Hippouros. A small fly that looked like a wasp, hummed like a bee and was eaten by fish when it landed in the water. Later, Dame Juliana Berners, in her second edition of the Book of St. Albans which appeared in 1496, included an essay titled the Treatyse of Fisshynge wyth an Angle included a wasp as one of her twelve flies. 

There are many species of ants. California has more than 150 recognized species. The ant is important because it is a readily available food item for fish at every elevation, especially during mating swarms. This flying black Carpenter Ant pattern appeared in the May 1970 issue of Outdoor Life titled A Fly for All Season. This was one of the late Mike Fong’s earliest articles. I have used it successfully since then and it is a staple in my terrestrial box along with parachute, balsa and foam ants. I also tie it in rust to imitate flying Termites. I have made one alteration over the years by substituting antron for the fur body. The antron will imitate the body of the ant in the water, since ants have tiny hairs on their bodies and will collect bubbles when they fall into the water. The bubbles cause a halo that surrounds the body just like a real ant. 

Flying Carpenter Ant 


Hook: #10-#12 2X long (Tiemco #2312) 

Back: Black deer hair 

Abdomen: Black antron 

Hackle: Brown 

Wings: Blue dun hackle points 

1. Tie in the black deer hair along the shank with the long ends extending out the rear. I prefer to use deer body hair as it has the most buoyancy. If you don’t have deer body hair, use the hair from the bottom of a black dyed bucktail. Make sure that you have enough length to fold back over the fly to cover the body segments. 

2. Dub on the black antron and shape the abdomen. 

3. Wind the brown hackle just forward of the center(I will use the worst brown hackle I have or hen neck brown hackle as I don’t want to have the fly sit up above the film.). 

4. Pull the hair over the top of the hook and tie down in front of the abdomen dubbing then tie down in front of the hackle. Trim the excess hair. 

5. Wing the ant with blue dun hackle points; then shape the head with thread. 

You can fish this pattern for trout in both running and still waters. The pattern also catches bluegill and bass. Especially if you use it under overhanging brush or trees on the lake or pond you are fishing. 

Try it. I think you’ll like it! 

Ralph Wood, 2018

Ralph Wood Ant.jpg


by Ralph Wood


Pregnant Baggy Scud





In Brian Chan and Phil Rowley’s book Stillwater Solutions Recipes published in 2007, there is a sentence that caught my eye. Phil Rowley writes “Of all the prey items available for the still water fly fisher to imitate, scuds seem to receive the least amount of respect and attention.” It seems strange given the facts. In the year around diet of trout in productive stillwaters, scuds can be as much as 19% of their overall diet only exceeded by the 39% of chironomids trout eat during the year.

Scuds are most active in low light conditions (early morning or evening). Their habitat includes weed beds, debris areas and rocky shorelines. Resting, feeding and dead scuds tend to curl up in a fetal position. Swimming scuds have a straight position. Colors tend to follow the background surroundings: tan, olive, light olive, gray and various shades of green. Olive green is a very prevalent color on most lakes with imitations in sizes #10 to #16. 

Pregnant Baggy Scud

Hook: Tiemco 2457 or 3769, #10 to #16 

Thread: Olive 6/0 or 8/0 

Rib: Fine copper wire 

Shellback: 1/8-inch-wide plastic strip 

Body: Olive seals fur or substitute 

Marsupium: Hot orange dubbing (represents the scuds egg sack) 

1. Tie in behind the eye and lay down a foundation of thread. If desired, weight shank. 

2. Tie in ribbing material and bring thread to the eye of the hook. 

3. Tie in the plastic shellback with the balance of the material hanging over the eye to the front. Return thread to back of the shank. 

4. Form a dubbing noodle with the olive dubbing and wind to the middle of the shank. Then dub a small amount of hot orange to form the egg sack. Two to three wraps is sufficient. Then continue the olive dubbing forward to the eye. 

5. Pull the plastic strip over the body to the back. Tie down with the ribbing and then rib forward to the eye. Trim the balance of the plastic with your scissors to form the tail. Roughen the body (I use a male Velcro strip on a popsicle stick, then trim the legs to a scud shape. 

I use a plastic storage bag for the shellback. By using a ruler and a single edge razor blade you can cut out the 1/8-inch strips you need. I usually weight these flies. 

Fish over weed beds and around debris (logs, fallen trees and brush). Situate yourself off the shoreline and work the area carefully allowing the fly to get to the bottom or suspend it over a weed bed with an indicator. Use an erratic hand twist retrieve or sometimes a strip retrieve of three to four inches. Don’t strip too quickly and keep the retrieve staggered to imitate erratic swimming. 

Ralph Wood   2018


by Ralph Wood




Several of our GCFF members are avid bass fly fishers, including myself.  As you probably are aware, the GCFF has several members who are excellent fly tiers, design bass flies and are willing to divulge some of their custom patterns. 

Rocco Fasone is a long-time member of our club and spends a lot of time fishing for bass in our local lakes and ponds.  Rocco had a fly pattern published in Fly Tyer magazine’s Winter 2017 issue in the Readers Favorites column.  He has devised a bass fly that has been slaying the fish in our local lakes this year.  Rocco states that while the fly was designed for bass it also takes trout.  The thought process behind the flies origination was that the year prior, white had been one of the primary colors that worked well for him.  So, he devised a fly that covered the white color with pearl flash cut from a pearl palmer chenille and white craft fur while adding a red Kristal Flash chenille gills.  Rocco says that this pattern has been “knocking them dead” and has become his “go-to” fly. 


Because the fly is easy to tie Rocco has named it: 


Simple Simon

        Hook: Redding Fly Shop 2305 #4 or any other 2x heavy 1x long hook.

        Thread: 6/0 white

        Eyes: Red barbell eyes

        Tail: Fibers cut from a pearl palmer chenille strand

        Body: Silver opal tinsel (large)

        Gills:  Blood red Krystal Flash chenille

        Throat: Fibers cut from a pearl palmer chenille strand

        Wing: White craft fur

1.  Mount the red barbell eyes on top of the hook which will force the fly to ride with the hook point up (fly pictured shows fly with point down because it is easier to photograph).  Tie in the tail to extend from behind the eye to one shank length behind the hook bend.  This will enable you to wrap a smooth tinsel body.

2. Begin the body by tying in the tinsel midway between the point and the barb. Wrap the body up to 2/3 of the hook shank, tie off and clip excess tinsel.

3. Tie in the red Krystal Flash and wrap to just behind eye.  Clip excess.  No more than two wraps.

4. Bring the thread in front of the eyes.  Tie in the fibers from the pearl chenille so they extend to the end of the tail.  This will be the bottom of the fly when fished.  Tie in the wing in front of the eyes and then bring the thread and make a couple of wraps behind the eyes like a Clouser Minnow.

5. Turn the hook over in the vise, bring the thread in front of the eyes again and tie in the white craft fur wing just on top of the pearl chenille tie in wraps. The wing should extent about 1 1/2 times the hook shank.  Again, just like a Clouser

6.  Whip-finish and epoxy the head.


Rocco usually fishes the fly on an intermediate or a heavy sink-tip line.  Move it like a bait fish.  Cast toward the banks and the shallows.  

Ralph Wood   2018


by Ralph Wood 


Green Drake Biot Emerger 

(Soft Hackle) 





In 1991 Sylvester Nemes self published Soft-Hackled Fly Imitations in which he presented soft hackle fly patterns to match the hatching insects around Bozeman Montana.  Included were flies to match the Mother’s Day caddis,callibaetis, green drake, PMD and others.  In 2003 Rene Harrop published Trout Hunter which is a collection of magazine articles collected over several years, most of which were originally published in Fly Fisherman.  Chapter two in Trout Hunter deals with emergers and was first published in 1982, nine years before Nemes wrote his book.  So, the use of soft hackled patterns to match specific hatches here in the United States began before most people were really aware of how effective the technique could be.  This pattern by Rene Harrop has been modified slightly to more closely imitate the green drakes in the Sierra Nevada around the Truckee area.

The Green Drake Emerger uses a two hackle technique.  The first hackle represents the legs of the insect and the second hackle imitates the wing color.  Does this approach really work?  Guess we have to leave it to the fish but, keep in mind, that this Harrop pattern has become a staple on the Henry's Fork in Idaho.

The Green Drake Emerger is meant to be drifted or swung in the top of the water column as a pre-emerger, cripple, or a drowning adult.  The hackle conveys motion and bulk as well as the legs and emerging wings of the adult.

Green Drake Biot Emerger

Hook: Tiemco 200 size #10

Thread: Black 8/0 

Tail: Wood duck flank fibers(sparse) 

Body: Turkey biot dyed brown olive 

Thorax: Olive hare’s ear lightly overlaid with grey hare’s ear 

Hackle: Olive hen grizzly or olive hen (three wraps) then two wraps of black hen.

Here’s to great fishing! 

Ralph Wood   2018


by Ralph Wood

Damselfly Nymph




It was early April and the fishing in the farm pond was slow.  The weather had warmed up for a couple of days and I wanted to see if the bluegill and bass were beginning to make their way towards spawning beds. Pat had picked up a few bluegill but I hadn’t had a hit yet.  As much as I hate to admit defeat, I finally called across the pond to ask what was her successful fly pattern.  She responded “Olive damselfly nymph #10”.  A quick check of the 3000 flies I had brought with me to fish this small pond for a couple of hours showed no olive damselfly nymphs to be had.  They were all at home in my trout lake boxes. 

I finally caught a bluegill on an olive dragonfly nymph (see Fly Paper February 2015 for pattern) but still had no luck with the bass even though they were slowly moving along the shoreline feeding sporadically.  I did finally begin to score on the bass with a B/H cinnamon crystal bugger but on the way home I vowed to tie  couple of dozen damselfly nymphs in assorted colors for my warm water boxes.

This easy pattern has become one of my main standbys for many years now.  As far as I am aware, the pattern first appeared in Randall Kaufman’s The Fly Tyers Nymph Manual published in 1986 by Western Fisherman’s Press.  However, marabou has always been a material that works well with damselfly patterns.  It’s doubtful that this was the first pattern composed entirely of dyed marabou.

Marabou Damsel


        Hook: Tiemco 200, 8-10, weight as needed

        Thread: Olive 8/0

        Tail: Olive marabou

        Rib: Copper wire or use Pearsall's olive silk thread

        Body: Olive marabou

        Wing: Olive marabou


    1.  Secure thread at the thorax position.  Select a bunch of marabou fibers.  The recipe suggests a large bundle but keep in mind that the nymph is very slim bodied and too much marabou will inhibit the movement and bulk up the body.           Less is more!

    2.  Tie in the marabou by the tips at the thorax and tie down along the shank to the hook bend between the barb and the point.

    3.  With your fingers tear the marabou to the proper length, clip the excess fibers at the thorax and tie in the ribbing material.

    4.  Select a smaller bunch of marabou and tie it in tips first at the thorax. Again, tie down on top of the hook shank to the tail.  

    5.  Wrap the marabou strands to the thorax to form the body.  Rib the body.

    6.  There should be at least a quarter inch of space for the wing.  Tie in a good sized bunch of olive marabou.  Trim off the excess over the eye and pull (not cut) off the wing fibers to 1/3 length of body.  Build a thread head, whip finish          and you are done except for head cement if you choose.


Olive is a great color as is brown, tan, and believe it or not claret or wine.


There a few other things that can be done with this pattern.  The way a damsel nymph swims is a problem for fly fishermen.  They swing back and forth with a sinusoidal motion rather than with an up and down motion.  Philip Rowley suggests that you leave a long, sparse tail as that will tend to swing back and forth.  He feels that the short tail in the pattern pulses rather than swings.  I have both in my boxes and I lean to the original but you should try both.  

Use a slow hand twist retrieve with plenty of pauses along and over weed beds.  Remember, if the bugs start to migrate, they will migrate to shore and standing vegetation.  You want to have a position where your nymph is heading to the shoreline not visa versa.

Damsel fly nymphs are an all year food for pond and lake fish.  Don’t forget to use them all year.

Ralph Wood 2018




by Ralph Wood



Venables Pattern

The history of fly fishing and fly tying leads down many paths. This design can be tenuously traced back to the attempted Viking conquest of Paris, France by Rollo. Legend has it that Rollo was so big he had to walk everywhere, as there were no horses big or strong enough to carry him. He failed to capture the city but Charles III gave Rollo the part of France that came to be called Normandy in exchange for a promise that the raids would end. A later Duke of Normandy sired a son who became William the Conqueror. In 1066 William invaded England and defeated King Harold at the Battle of Hastings. All very interesting, but what does this have to do with the fly design you say? 

One of Williamʼs retinue was a huntsman named Charles Venables whose son later went on to fight in many battles for William. However after failing to capture Hispaniola, the son was imprisoned in the Tower of London. Here he wrote The Experienced Angler which was published in 1662 after his release. This pattern was contained in that book. And thatʼs what Vikings in Normandy have to do with fly tying. Like most anglers of his day, Venables had to deal with the weeds that infest British chalk streams. We deal with the problem with light wire hooks and modern floatant. Anglers of the 17th century had no such help. To keep the hook from snagging in the weeds, Venable proposed that the fly be tied to “float” with the hook point up. It needs to be pointed out that the word “float” does not necessarily mean on the surface; it also refers to a wet fly that drifts at a fairly constant depth, as if it was suspended in the water, rather than sinking down through it. 

This type of fly design did not appear again for centuries. Venable was far ahead of his time. This is an adaptation of the design using modern hooks and tied on a vise. I think if you try it you will be pleasantly surprised at how well it works. This design can be translated into many different insects and many different sizes. 

Hook: Tiemco 100 sizes 12-22 

Thread: 8/0 olive 

Wing: CDC puff (Gray or Slate) 

Hackle: Blue dun 

Thorax: BWO olive or olive brown 

Body: Thread (silk or nylon-color to match natural) 


1. Mount the hook in the vise upside down. That is with the hook point up. 


2. Tie in the wing and hackle (leave a small space between the wing and hook eye). When tied in the hackles glossy side should face you.


3. Dub a small thorax immediately behind the wing. Then wind the thread to 

the bend and back to just behind the thorax. I like to use Pearsallʻs silk thread because it holds its color when wet and I can use cobblers wax to darken the thread in some of the flies. 

4. Wind the hackle back through the thorax. Three turns on a size 20 and four or 

five on larger flies. Tie off the hackle at the rear of the thorax and clip the excess. 

5. Spiral the thread forward through the thorax, the lift the wing and elevate it by making several turns of thread in front of it. Hold the wing out of the way while making the whip finish. Cut away the thread and trim off the fibers on the underside of the fly. 


If you fish fast, broken water, you may want to wind the hackle the full length of the body. Try various colors. How about a pinkie with wood duck or mallard dyed wood duck wing fiber wings, brown or cree hackle, and a pink thread body with a pink fur thorax? The wings on other designs can be any bunched flank or other feather fibers depending on the insect you are trying to imitate. Experiment and have fun. 

Ralph Wood    2018


by Ralph Wood


Skwala Stonefly Dry 




Skwala stoneflies do not cover a wide area of California but, thankfully, the 

Lower Yuba River has a substantial population as does the Truckee area. 

The Skwala Stonefly is similar in appearance to the golden stone of early spring and summer but is smaller than the golden. The abdomen is a dirty yellow with a slight olive tinge (Why I use olive thread). Also, the wings are dark gray unlike the golden stone’s light brown. The hatch on the Lower Yuba can begin as early as December but usually doesn’t get started in earnest until early January. You can fish this hatch into mid-April before the fish begin to lose their interest! 

The adults are best imitated by a Stimulator type pattern in size #10 3x long although I have noticed that in some years the insects are smaller and I will tie the fly in size #12 3x long. Early in the emergence a bushy pattern will work but, as the hatch progresses, it is important that your imitation sits low in the surface film. If you watch the female adult on the water, you will see that she looks like a black stick with moving legs. The low riding artificials should include the female’s prominent black egg sack.

There are a few things to remember when you are fishing a dry adult pattern. The adults hide out in the streamside willows and brush during the coldest part of the day. The egg-laying flights don’t start until the temperatures are warm enough for the females to fly. This normally happens in the early afternoon. By fishing a dry fly alongside the willows and brush in the warmest part of the day, you will be fishing effectively. You can tell when the fish begin to feed on the females. The rise is an explosion, especially early in the emergence in January. Later in the emergence, the rises will not be as explosive but will be heavy swirls. 

This is a pattern I devised for the Skwala emergence on the Lower Yuba River. It has been very successful.


Hook: Tiemco #200 size 10 

Egg sack: Black 1/8 inch foam 

Ribbing: Small copper Ultra Wire 

Abdomen: Yellow Sunburst Caliente or yellow synthetic dubbing mixed with a small pinch of pearl UV Lite-Bright 

Abdomen Hackle: Black Saddle 

Wing: Black Web Wing 

Over Wing: Bleached Elk 

Hackle: Black Saddle 

Legs-Antenna: Medium Black Rubber 

Thorax: Black Caliente or black synthetic dubbing mixed with a pinch of pearl UV Lite-Bright. 


1. Cut piece of black foam 1/4 inch wide. Round off one end, this will imitate the egg sack. Tie the foam in over the hook barb with the rounded end extending back • inch. Clip off the waste foam. Tie in the ribbing and then dub the abdomen up to the 2/3 mark. 


2. Tie in the black saddle by the butt (fibers should be no longer than the hook gape) and reverse rib back to the ribbing tie in point. Use the ribbing to tie off the saddle and then bring the ribbing forward through the hackle to the end of the abdomen. 


3. Clip the hackle ribbing flush with the top of the abdomen and cut a piece of Web Wing about two inches long (the width of the hook gape). Round one end to represent a folded stonefly wing and taper the sides to a width of approximately • the hook gape (this will enable you to get the wing set properly). Tie in with the rounded end of the wing extending about 1/8 inch beyond the egg sack. Cut off the excess Web Wing. Stack a small bunch of bleached elk and tie in on top of the Web wing tie off. Trim off the excess. 


4. Tie in black saddle hackle. Cut two pieces of black rubber leg, each about two inches long. Tie in one on each side of the thorax area from the end of the wing to just behind the hook eye leaving the center open for the dubbing and hackle. The rubber leg material should extend along the body to the bend of the hook in back and in front about abdomen length; trim if necessary. Dub the thorax and wind the hackle 4 to 5 times over the thorax and tie off behind the antenna. 


5. Whip finish

Ralph Wood   2018